3. Shell element tests with 1 element

A single rectangular linear shell element with a length of 3.78 in the x-direction, 4.27 in the y-direction and a thickness of 0.132 is subjected four different loading conditions: Axial loading in x-direction, axial loading in xy-direction, bending around the x-axis, and bending around the y-axis.

The results are compared to the analytical solutions listed below. The test is performed for 4, 8, and 9 node shell elements. The in-plane loading conditions are also applied to 2D elements (plane-stress).

Table 18. Analytical results:Axial loading in x-direction

sigma_xx 0.9332
delta_x 0.885324

Table 19. Analytical results:Axial loading in xy-direction

sigma_yy 1.138
delta_y 1.22131

Table 20. Analytical results: Bending around the x-axis

sigma_yy_1 0.02988
sigma_yy_3 0.008007
delta_z 0.876609
theta_x 0.30794

Table 21. Analytical results:Bending around the y-axis

sigma_xx_1 0.02342
sigma_xx_3 0.006274
delta_z 0.538346
theta_y -0.213629