**List of Figures**

- 1. Linear stress analysis of a bolt: Mesh
- 2. Linear stress analysis of a bolt: Deformed structure.
- 3. Linear stress analysis of a bolt: Von Mises stresses on cut.
- 4. Cook membrane problem: EPATCH model. P3 is the sampling point for y displacements (left). Deformed shape with amplitude for finest mesh and boundary of underformed mesh (right).
- 5. Cook membrane problem: Convergence behaviour.
- 6. Raasch challenge: Geometry
- 7. Raasch challenge: Deformed structure (amplified x 4).
- 8. Scordelis-Lo Roof: Mesh and boundary conditions (1/4 of structure modeled), 6 by 6 Q4 mesh.
- 9. Scordelis-Lo Roof: Deformed shape (y-displacements), 10 by 10 Q4 mesh.
- 10. Convergence behaviour
- 11. Tensile strip: Outline of model
- 12. Tensile strip: Detail of mesh
- 13. Tensile strip: Von Mises stress, sampling point display method (HE8 mesh)
- 14. Mesh and boundary conditions
- 15. Load-displacement curves
- 16. Small cable truss: Mesh and boundary conditions: load at node 9 in negative z-direction.
- 17. Small cable truss: Deformed shape
- 18. Small cable truss: Load-deformation curve of node 9.
- 19. COCOMAT PSC5 benchmark model: Mesh
- 20. COCOMAT PSC5 benchmark model: Solution
- 21. Cylinder with square cutouts: Meshes with Q4.S.MITC.E4 elements. 1/8 of cylinder is modeled.
- 22. Cylinder with square cutouts: Boundary conditions and local node coordinate systems.
- 23. Cylinder with square cutouts: Load-displacement graph (Q4 mesh).
- 24. Cylinder with square cutouts: Load-displacement graph (Q8 mesh).
- 25. Cylinder with square cutouts: Load-displacement graph (Q9 mesh).
- 26. Cylinder with square cutouts: Stress σ
_{zz}(Q4 mesh). - 27. Deployable ring: Mesh (36 B2.S.RS elements).
- 28. Deployable ring: M
_{x}vs applied rotation (36 B2.S.RS elements). - 29. Deployable ring: Deformation shapes at steps 0π, 0.5π, π, 1.5π, and 2π. (36 B2.S.RS elements).
- 30. Healey dome geometry (top view)
- 31. Load-displacement curve of mid-point node
- 32. Lee frame: Beam model and load (dense mesh).
- 33. Lee frame: Load-displacement response point A (continuation).
- 34. Pinched cylinder (clamped): Meshes for Q4.S.MITC.E4, Q8.S.MITC, Q9.S.MITC elements.
- 35. Pinched cylinder (clamped): Convergence behaviour (Q4 mesh).
- 36. Pinched cylinder (clamped): Convergence behaviour (Q8 mesh).
- 37. Pinched cylinder (clamped): Convergence behaviour (Q9 mesh).
- 38. Pinched cylinder: Test case definition
- 39. Pinched cylinder: Deformed configuration (Q9).
- 40. Pinched cylinder: Results for Q8.S.MITC shell elements.
- 41. Pinched cylinder: Results for Q9.S.MITC shell elements.
- 42. Geometry and loading of plate
- 43. Test case definition
- 44. Tip z displacement vs load factor for a 32x4 mesh of Q4.S.MITC.E4 elements and final deformed configuration.
- 45. Rod snap problem: Model.
- 46. Rod snap problem: Reaction Force R
_{y}as a function of the load factor - 47. Spherical cap test: Mesh (Q8 axi-symmetric elements).
- 48. Spherical cap test: Load-displacement curve for max_newton_iterations set to 100.
- 49. Spherical cap test: Load-displacement curve for max_newton_iterations set to 10.
- 50. Geometry Verolme panel
- 51. Load-shortening curves for different mesh densities
- 52. Model (Q elements) and location of boundary conditions
- 53. Cylinder under torsion load: Mesh (Q4 shell elements).
- 54. Cylinder under torsion load: First buckling mode and applied generated torsional forces (Q4 shell elements).
- 55. Reduction of buckling load as function of beam section eccentricity ratio eccentricity/thickness for B2.S.RS (2 node beam) elements.
- 56. Reduction of buckling load as function of beam section eccentricity ratio eccentricity/thickness for B3.S.RS (2 node beam) elements.
- 57. Beam orientation of eccentricity test (beam rotated 45 degrees around y-axis).
- 58. Hexadome (Healey problem): Geometry
- 59. Buckling of slightly curved cylindrical panel: Geometry
- 60. Buckling of slightly curved panel: Convergence behaviour (force controlled)
- 61. Cable-stayed bridge: Mesh
- 62. Free vibration mode 10
- 63. Curved panel model: Mesh consists of 10 by 14 Q4 elements or 5 by 7 Q8/Q9 elements.
- 64. Eigenmodes of the curved panel: Mode 7 (left) and 8 (right).
- 65. Flat isotropic plate with hinge
- 66. Flat isotropic plate (10 by 10 element mesh)
- 67. Mode shapes for different eigenvalues
- 68. Helicopter rotor model
- 69. Mode shapes for different eigenvalues
- 70. Tower Cable: Initial (blue) and deformed position in [m] at load level 1.0. Applied forces [N] plotted in deformed configuration.
- 71. Tower Cable: Load-displacement and load-stress curves of node A (values in [in]).
- 72. Displacement response.
- 73. Solution at node 1 of mesh (blue dots: theoretical solution).
- 74. Beam model.
- 75. Time-displacement response, no damping.
- 76. Time-displacement response, no damping.
- 77. Time-displacement response, no damping.
- 78. One DOF model: Displacement response for initial displacement and large time step (multi step integration order 2).
- 79. Non-linear one-dof problem: FE model and dimensions.
- 80. Non-linear one-dof problem: Displacement response as function of time. Red dots: B2000++, every fifth point plotted. Black line: analytical solution.
- 81. HEA profile with shell elements: Mesh (upper model: continuous mesh, lower model: discontinuous mesh).
- 82. HEA profile with shell elements: Amplified deformed shape and longitudinal stresses (upper model: continuous mesh, lower model: discontinuous mesh).
- 83. Beam section profile
- 84. Mesh A: B2000 epatch views of lower flange (yellow), web (green), and upper flange(red). Tie interface points shown in black.
- 85. Mesh A. Continuous solid mesh.
- 86. Mesh B: Non-matching solid mesh.
- 87. Mesh B, loading condition C2: Heat analysis solution (temperatures).
- 88. Mesh B, loading condition C1: Stresses Sxx (in x-direction).
- 89. Clamped beam model.
- 90. Vibration modes. Dotted: Local model. Solid: Global reference model.
- 91. Heat analysis mesh
- 92. Deformed mesh and temperatures
- 93. σ
_{xx}at Gauss points: Values at +-0.7746 H/2 of half height of beam (blue and red dots). - 94. 1D linear thermal conductivity test: Temperature distribution for the H20 case.
- 95. 1D linear thermal conductivity tests with source: Temperature distribution.
- 96. Heat equation 1D convection test: Mesh (Q4, L2 elements)
- 97. Heat equation 1D convection test: Temperature along x (Q4, L2 elements)
- 98. Heated wire: Mesh and boundary conditions
- 99. Radiation of plate to plate: Mesh and normals
- 100. Radiation of plate to plate: Accumulated heat.
- 101. Radiation of cylinder to plate: Mesh and normals
- 102. Radiation of a cylinder: Accumulated heat.
- 103. Radiation of a cylinder: Accumulated heat, detail (different scale).
- 104. Linear transient heat conduction: Mesh and initial conditions at face in contact with air.
- 105. Linear transient heat conduction: Temperature T(t) at z=0.6[m]
- 106. Free vibrations of volume of air: Mesh.
- 107. Free vibrations of volume of air: baspl++ modes tool selection.
- 108. Free vibrations of volume of air: Vibration mode 1.
- 109. Free vibrations of volume of air: Vibration mode 4.
- 110. Free vibrations of volume of air: Vibration mode 20.
- 111. Beam section solver mesh
- 112. Deformation of truss (amplified).
- 113. Deformation of frame (amplified).
- 114. Cantilever beam deformation (green; case 1, yellow: case2, blue:case 3)
- 115. Beam geometry: Length
`L=50`

, height`b=3`

, and width`t=1`

- 116. In-plane bending behaviour
- 117. Patch geometry and displacement field example
- 118. Stress test: Undeformed and deformed shape
- 119. Thin walled cylinder
- 120. Tetrahedron element test
- 121. Prism element test
- 122. Geometry of clamped beam
- 123. Geometry of clamped beam with prescribed displacement
- 124. Geometry of simply supported beam
- 125. Deformed and undeformed box beam structure
- 126. Asymmetric Cable: Initial (blue) and deformed position. Mesh nodes marked red.
- 127. Asymmetric Cable: Deformations and stresses at point A.
- 128. Flat isotropic plate
- 129. Considered plate with sinusoidal loading