Model Description Language (MDL)

The Model Description Language (MDL) is a data driven language for describing the geometrical, the physical, and the mathematical properties of a problem, and the numeric parameters for the solver(s). To enable parametric models, MDL has features such as variable assignment, substitution, and some flow control statements.

MDL Language Elements

MDL features variable assignment, substitution, and flow control. These features enable the writing of parametric input files. This functionality proves useful in a wide range of contexts, but it cannot replace real programming languages (such as Python).

MDL format

MDL language elements are placed in text files. These files may be created with text editors or by means of scripts.

MDL is interpreted as a stream of items which are separated by space characters and newline characters. It does not matter how many space or newline characters are present. Example:

One

two
three 4

is equivalent to

One two three 4

Items pertaining to the parametric input either begin with a reserved word or are enclosed in parentheses. Such items are processed and may expand to new data items. This is illustrated by means of the following example:

(a=4) One to three (a)

The item “(a=4)” assigns the integer value 4 to the variable “a”, and the item “(a)” expands the current contents of variable “a”. Thus, the expanded MDL is

One to three 4

Comments, i.e. explanatory text, begin with the # character and stretch until the end of the line.

Numeric data

Integer (or int) numbers contain the characters 0-9, possibly prefixed by the unary operators + or -. Examples:

100 -1 +1234

Floating-point (or float) numbers have either a decimal point (.), an exponent (letter e or E, possibly followed by + or -, and followed by 1-3 digits), or both. They may be prefixed by the unary operators + or -. Examples:

0. 1. 123.1 .1 -1e-20 1.234E+2 +0.0002

Character string and text string data

Unquoted character strings begin with an alphabetic character, followed by an arbitrary number of alphanumeric characters and/or the dot (.) and underscore (_) characters. Such unquoted character strings are used for both attribute names and attribute values. Examples:

ischeme GAUSS3X3
eltype B2.S.RS
analysis dynamic_nonlinear

Text strings (or str data) may contain any printable characters and must be delimited by single quotes (’) or double quotes (“). Example:

"A text string with 8 words and one number"

Special characters must be preceded by the backslash () character. Example:

"A text string with \"quotes\" and a newline character\n"

List data

Lists are sequences of primitive data, usually integer or floating-point numbers, character strings, or text strings. Lists are enclosed by square brackets. Example:

[ 1 2 3 4 ]

For longer lists, ranges can be specified inside the list. Example:

[ 1 10/20 45 46 50 ]

generates a list of integers in the form of

[ 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 45 46 50 ]

A step size can optionally be specified. The following

[ 1 10/20/2 45 46 50 ]

generates a list of integers in the form of

[ 1 10 12 14 16 18 20 45 46 50 ]

Include files

Portions of MDL can be placed in separate files which can be inserted by means of the include statement:

include FILENAME

FILENAME must be a valid file name without any escape sequences. If it contains spaces, dot characters (.), slash characters (/), or other special characters, it must be enclosed by single or double quotes. File names are relative w.r.t. the directory of the MDL file containing the include statement. Examples:

include "../../materials.mdl"
include "case_def.mdl"

Variable assignment

Variables are assigned by means of the assignment operator = and the expression must be enclosed by parentheses. Example:

(i=3)

will assign the integer value 3 to the variable i.

Variable names begin with an alphabetical character (a-z, A-Z), followed by zero or more alphanumeric and/or underscore (_) characters.

The value that will be assigned to the variable is evaluated from the expression that follows the assignment operator. From the expression’s type, the type of the variable is inferred.

The operator ?= assigns only if the variable has not already been assigned. In conjunction with the -define command-line option, it can be used to specify default values that can be overridden on the command line. Example:

(eltype?="Q9.S.MITC")

This is identical to the following:

if (not isdefined(eltype)) {
  (eltype="Q9.S.MITC")
}

Data types

For variable assignment, evaluation of expressions, and substitution of expressions, the following primitive data types are supported:

MDL Data Types

Data type

Description

bool

Represents boolean values. Only the constant values true and false exist.

int

Represents 32-bit signed integer numbers.

float

Represents 64-bit IEEE-754 floating-point numbers.

str

Represents text strings.

Data type conversion

Expressions can be converted from one data type to another by means of the functions bool(), int(), float(), str(). Example:

(a=int(4.2**3))

assigns the int value 74 to the variable “a”.

Substitution

Any expression, variable, or constant of one of the aforementioned data types, when enclosed by parentheses, constitutes a substitution statement. Example:

(eltype="Q4.S.MITC") (t1=2.5) (t2=1.5)
eltype (eltype) mid 1 thickness (t1+t2) eccent (t2/2)

is equivalent to

eltype "Q4.S.MITC" mid 1 thickness 4. eccent .75

Expressions

MDL logical operators

Number of Operands

Operator

Description

binary

and, or

Logical “and”, “OR

unary

not

Logical “not”

All logical operators return bool values.

The “not” operator has a higher precedence than the “and” and “or” operators.

The following relational operators yield bool values:

==, !=, <, <=, >, >=

The operands may be of any type. Operands of type bool and int are converted to type float. Values of type str are always “greater” than bool and numerical values. Relational operators have higher precedence than logical operators.

The following arithmetic operators (for expressions of type int and float) are available. They are listed with increasing precedence (all of them with higher precedence than relational operators), with the addition and subtraction operators having the lowest precedence, and the power operator the highest.

MDL arithmetic operators

Number of Operands

Operator

Description

binary

+, -

Addition and subtraction.

binary

*, / , mod

Multiplication, division, and modulus.

unary

+, -

Defines the sign of the numeric operand.

binary

**

Power.

All these operators can be applied to operands of type int and type float. For binary operators, when both operands are of type int, the result is also of type int. When both operands are of type float, the result is also of type float. When one operand is of type int and the other of type float, the int operand is first converted to a float, and the result is of type float.

For str expressions, the binary operator + means concatenation:

("A " + "string " + "with " + "several " + "words.")

Sub-expressions may be enclosed in parentheses to override the operator precedence rules. Example:

(e=73.1e3) (p=0.33) (g=e/(2*(1+p)) (g)

Built-in functions and constants

General built-in MDL functions

Function name

Description

abs(x)

Returns the absolute value of x. The type of x (integer or floating-point number) is preserved.

isdefined(x)

Returns true if the variable has been set.

max(x, y, …)

Returns the argument with the maximum value. The arguments may have different types. A string is always “greater” than a number.

min(x, y, …)

Returns the argument with the minimum value. The arguments may have different types. A string is always “greater” than a number.

Mathematical built-in MDL functions

Function name

Description

math.acos(x)

Returns the arc cosine (measured in radians) of x.

math.asin(x)

Returns the arc sine (measured in radians) of x.

math.asin(x)

Returns the arc tangent (measured in radians) of x.

math.cos(x)

Returns the cosine of x (measured in radians).

math.degrees(x)

Converts angle x from radians to degrees.

math.exp(x)

Returns math.e**x

math.log(x)

Returns the natural logarithm of x.

math.log10(x)

Returns the base 10 logarithm of x.

math.radians(x)

Converts angle x from degrees to radians.

math.sin(x)

Returns the sine of x (measured in radians).

math.sqrt(x)

Returns the square root of x.

math.tan(x)

Returns the tangent of x (measured in radians).

predefined MDL constants

Constant name

Description

math.e

The Euler number (2.718281828459045)

math.pi

The number Pi (3.141592653589793)

Conditional processing

The if statement allows for conditional processing. Example:

if (a < 0) {
  "a is smaller than zero"
} elif (a == 0) {
  "a is zero"
} else {
  "a is greater than zero"
}

There can be zero or more elif parts. The else part is optional. The conditionally processed parts are enclosed in curly brackets ({ and }).

Conditional loops

The while statement can be used to process the same part several times, as long as the condition evaluates to true. Example:

(i=1) while (i <= 10) {(i**2) (i=i+1)}

evaluates to

1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100

The break and continue statements

The break statement exits the directly enclosing loop. The continue statement stops the processing of the current iteration of the loop and continues with the next iteration of the loop. Example:

(i=1) while (1) {(i**2) if (i==10) {break} (i=i+1)}

MDL Commands

MDL commands are text blocks describing specific data, such as node coordinates, material properties, etc. Each block starts with a keyword and is terminated by end.

Upper case text in the input descriptions of blocks and all other specifications of this chapter signifies replaceable or variable.

The tables below summarize all MDL blocks of the mesh definition, the boundary conditions definition, the material properties definition, and analysis control.

MDL Mesh Specification Blocks Summary

Command

Description Summary

branch

Specify branches in a multi-branch (multi-mesh) model.

branch_orientation

Defines branch local to global coordinate systems.

edgeset

Defines element edge sets.

elements

Defines single elements.

epatch

Defines element and node patches.

elements

Defines single elements of current branch (mesh).

elementset

Defines element sets.

faceset

Defines element face sets.

field_transfer

Couples adjacent incompatible surface meshes.

join

Connects nodes of meshes.

nodes

Defines single nodes of current branch (mesh).

nodeset

Defines node sets.

transformations

Defines local DOF coordinate systems.

MDL Boundary Conditions Specification Blocks Summary

Command

Description Summary

atemperatures

Defines ambient temperatures.

dof_init, dofdot_init

Defines initial DOF conditions.

dof_init, dofdot_init

Defines initial time-derived DOF conditions.

ebc

Defines essential boundary conditions (constraints).

linc

Defines linear constraint equations.

nbc

Defines natural boundary conditions.

temperatures

Defines node temperatures.

MDL Materials and Properties Control Blocks Summary

Command

Description Summary

material

Defines element materials.

property

Defines beam element properties.

MDL Analysis Control Blocks Summary

Command

Description Summary

adir

Analysis directives

case

Specifies analysis case parameters.

stage

Specifies analysis stage parameters.

MDL Common Blocks Summary

Command

Description Summary

title

Specifies Problem title.

transformations

Specifies local DOF coordinate system transformations.

adir

adir specifies the analysis cases to be processed and directives that apply to all analysis cases. adir may only be defined once in a MDL file.

MDL Specification

adir
  directives...
end

Directives (required)

case IDENT | cases [IDENT1 IDENT2 ...]

Specifies the analysis case(s) to be processed (required). The identifier IDENT refers to a specific analysis case, see the case command.

Directives (optional)

add_ssc_elements

Automatically add shell-to-solid coupling (SSC) elements on interfaces between shell and solid elements. Note that the shell intersection detection algorithm is inhibited if the -iponly option is specified in calling the B2000++ input processor.

drills V

The drill stiffness factor V is used by the MITC shell elements to stabilize the 6th degree-of-freedom (RZ). The default value is 1e-8.

shell_intersection_angle V

MITC shell elements only: The node type with 5 or 6 degrees-of-freedom is determined in function of topological and geometric properties of the Finite Element mesh, as well the essential boundary conditions. The shell intersection angle V specifies the minimum angle in degrees (default is 30.0) at which elements meet. Thus, nodes of elements joining at an angle greater than v will have 6 degrees-of-freedom.

Note that the shell intersection detection algorithm is inhibited if the -iponly option is specified in calling the B2000++ input processor.

symmetry_plane PX PY PZ NX NY NZ

Specifies a symmetry plane by specifying a point p=(PY,PY,PZ) of the plane and the normal of the symmetry plane n=(NY,NY,NZ). Up to 6 symmetry planes can be defined. Note that defining symmetry planes does not entail that the symmetry planes will be used by B2000++. Specific solvers, such as the heat analysis radiation solver, will check for symmetry planes.

atemperatures

atemperatures specifies ambient temperature values at nodes for defining convective conditions in heat analysis in conjunction with the heat convection ‘overlay’ elements` defining the set number (a positive integer). To specify temperatures at nodes inducing thermal strains in stress analysis, please refer to the command. An atemperatures set is identified by IDENT, a non-negative integer which must be unique for the atemperatures conditions of the current model. IDENT is the number which is referenced by the atemperatures parameter of the case command. Sets with an IDENT of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

MDL Specification

atemperatures ID
  parameters
  node specifications...
end

Parameters

value V

Specifies the current ambient temperature value V assigned to subsequently specified nodes.

Node specifications

allnodes

Assign the ambient temperature values to all defined nodes of the current branch.

branch BR

For models that consist of several branches. Specifies the external branch number br. To be used in conjunction with the allnodes and nodes directives.

epatch ID PX | EX | FX | B

Selects nodes from an epatch. Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with the strings P1 to P8. Patch edge nodes are specified with the strings E1 to E12. Patch face nodes are specified with the strings F1 to F6. Patch body nodes of the whole patch body are specified with the string B.

node N | nodes [N1 N2 ...]

Specifies a node or a list of nodes (of the current branch) to which the ambient temperature value will be assigned.

atemperatures generates the dataset(s) ATEMP.br.0.0.<IDENT>.

branch

The branch command sets the current branch of the mesh specifications. All meh specifications will pertain to the branch until a new branch command is issued. If not specified, the default branch is 1: All MDL specifications thereafter will refer to branch 1.

MDL Specification

branch IDENT
  mesh specification...
end

Additional

A “branch” (or mesh) is a finite element mesh consisting of nodes and elements and identified uniquely by the mode and element IDENT (positive integers). Each branch is identified by its unique positive integer number. The default branch is 1: All model specifications will refer to branch 1.

Most finite element models (including those that were converted from other finite element codes) consist of a single branch or mesh, and in this case it is not necessary to specify the branch command. Defining multiple branches may be useful e.g in multi-disciplinary or multi-domain analysis, when combining different finite element meshes.

In the presence of multi-branch (multi-mesh) models, the nodes (and degrees-of-freedom) between branches (meshes) must be connected with the join or the link commands.

branch_orientation

branch_orientation specifies the orientation of all node coordinates of the current branch/mesh (or the default branch 1) with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. If no branch_orientation is specified, the node coordinates are expressed in the global coordinate system.

MDL Specification

branch_orientation
    [base u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3]
    [rotate axis x|y|z angle a]
    [translate tx ty tz ]
end

Parameters

base u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3

Calculate the base from the vectors \(u\) and \(v\) as follows: \(u\) defines the branch base \(e_1\), \(u \times v\) defines the branch base \(e_3\), and \(e_3 \times u\) defines the branch base \(e_2\).

rotate axis x|y|z angle a

Rotate the current branch base about the x, y, or z axis by a degrees, and according to the right-hand rule. Successive rotations can be specified.

rotate axis u1 u2 u3 angle a

Rotate the current branch base about the axis defined by the vector u by a degrees, and according to the right-hand rule. Successive rotations can be specified.

translate tx ty tz

Translate the current branch by tx in the x-direction, ty in the y-direction, and tz in the z-direction. All values are float values. The default translation is 0.0 in all three directions.

Example

The current branch is translated by x=50, y=20 and rotated by 30 degrees about the z-axis:

branch_orientation
    translate 50.0 20.0 0.0
    rotate axis z angle 30.0
end

The same transformation is defined by

branch_orientation
    translate 50.0 20.0 0.0
    base 0.866 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0.866 0.0
end

case

case specifies all ingredients needed for the analysis case identified by IDENT (positive int), in particular the boundary conditions, the initial conditions, and the solution strategy parameters.

To activate the analysis case in the solver, a case must be specified with they the case parameters of the adir command.

MDL Specification

case IDENT
   parameters
end

Parameters

The attributes enumerated in this section pertain to most types of analyses and concern the specification of initial conditions sets, boundary condition sets, and constraint sets. Solver-specific attributes are explained in the Solvers.

analysis T

Optional type of analysis for the present analysis case. If several cases are specified in an MDL input file the analysis type must be the same of all cases. The string T is one of

linear

Linear static (or stationary) analysis, see Linear Static Solver. This is the default analysis type (new from version 4.5.3. Previous versions MUST specify the analysis type!).

nonlinear

Non-linear static or stationary) analysis, see Static Nonlinear Solver (B2000++ Pro).

linearised_prebuckling

Bifurcation buckling analysis (solid mechanics), see Linearized Pre-Buckling Solver.

free_vibration

Free vibration analysis (solid mechanics), see Undamped Free Vibration Solver.

dynamic_nonlinear

Nonlinear dynamic (transient or non-stationary) analysis, see Dynamic Nonlinear Solver (B2000++ Pro).

frequency_dependent_free_vibration

Frequency-dependent free vibration analysis. See Frequency-Dependent Undamped Free-Vibration Solver (B2000++ Pro).

atemperatures IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Include the ambient temperatures set IDENT in the analysis (heat analysis). sfactor and sfunction are explained below.

component NAME type "ARGUMENT" [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Specifies a component to be included in the current analysis case. Components are extensions to B2000++. They implement specific natural boundary conditions, essential boundary conditions, initial conditions, or sets of constraints. The component and type parameters are used to identify the component, while the argument parameter is given to the component at the start of the analysis (stage). sfactor and sfunction are explained below.

dof_init IDENT

dof_init includes the initial DOF conditions identified by IDENT. Note that only one single dof_init identifier can be specified for the current case.

dofdot_init IDENT

`dofd_init includes the time derivatives of the initial DOF conditions identified by IDENT. Note that only one single dofdot_init identifier can be specified for the current case.

ebc IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Includes the essential boundary conditions identified by IDENT. Note that essential boundary conditions are not cumulative, i.e. if several essential boundary condition sets are specified, all values of common degrees-of-freedom must be equal. sfactor and sfunction are explained below.

field_transfer IDENT

Includes the field_transfer set identified by IDENT. The field_transfer set with an IDENT of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases.

Alternatively, several or all field_transfer sets may be specified:

field_transfer 123
field_transfer all

The accuracy of the calculated solution cannot always be ensured when field_transfer conditions are active. Therefore, a contraint method other thatn the default reduction methods must be specified, Linear and Nonlinear Constraint Control.

join IDENT

Includes the join set identified by IDENT in the current analysis case. Note that a join set with an identifier of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases.

gradients VALUE

Controls the computation of the gradients (strains, stresses, heat transfer, etc.) for the current case. Specifying a positive integer value (e.g. 1) for VALUE means yes. A value of 0 means no. Default is 0.

gradients_only yes|no

Specifies whether only gradients (and reaction forces) should be computed, while the solution vector is defined solely by the the initial conditions and the boundary conditions. Default is no.

linc IDENT

Includes the :ref:linear constraints <mdl.linc>` set identified by ``IDENT in the current analysis case. Note that a linc set with an identifier of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases.

nbc IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Includes the natural boundary conditions set identified by IDENT in the current analysis case. Natural boundary conditions are cumulative, i.e. if several natural boundary condition sets are specified the resulting natural boundary condition for IDENT is the sum of all natural boundary condition sets multiplied by their respective scaling. sfactor and sfunction are explained below.

rcfo_restrict WHAT

Specifies to which nodes the calculation of reaction forces shall be restricted in post-processing. This parameter is ignored by the B2000++ solvers. If not specified, the relevant Simples functions or baspl++ will loop over all nodes of the model to calculate the reaction forces. WHAT is one of:

epatch IDENT P1-P8|E1-E12|F1-F6|B

epatch IDENT PX | EX | FX | B

Selects nodes from an epatch. Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with the strings P1 to P8. Patch edge nodes are specified with the strings E1 to E12. Patch face nodes are specified with the strings F1 to F6. Patch body nodes of the whole patch body are specified with the string B.

nodeset NAME

Specifies the name of the node set to be included.

sparse_linear_solver dmumps|dmumps_dp|dll|dmf|dmf_ooc|dmf_ooc_nommap|dpastix|icg|igmres

Override the automatically selected sparse solver type by prescribing a specific sparse linear solver type (string). See Sparse Linear Equation Solvers.

stage IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Includes an analysis stage identified by IDENT. One or more stages can be defined for the current case. If more than one stage is specified, the solver will solve for one stage after the other in the order stages have been listed. If one or more stage parameters are specified for a given analysis case, no other may be specified for that particular case.

subcase parameters ... end

Defines a subcase of the current case. The subcase will inherit all case options, specifically the essential boundary conditons. In the present version only nbc case parameters also apply to subcase.

temperatures IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Includes the temperatures set identified by IDENT to be included for thermal stress analysis. sfactor and sfunction are explained below.

title 'TEXT'

Optional title describing the case.

sfactor and sfunction

In linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor S by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

In nonlinear direct analysis and in incremental analysis, the set is scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor S by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the set is multiplied.

Per-Stage Commands in Multi-stage analysis

During nonlinear analysis, it is often necessary to split the loading path into a series of stages. In this example, case 3 is executed, which consists of two stages (defined by stages 1 and 2). To ensure convergence of the nonlinear solver in the presence of buckling (load-controlled by default), artificial damping is performed to stabilize the problem.

stage 1
  ebc                   1
  nbc                   1
end

stage 2
  ebc                   2
  step_size_init        0.05
  step_size_max         0.05
end

case 3
  analysis              nonlinear
  residue_function_type artificial_damping
  stage                 1
  stage                 2
end

adir
  case 3
end

The B2000++ solver initializes many of its internal procedures and data structures on a per-case basis, not on a per-stage basis. The commands for the various methods are interpreted only during this initialization phase. Specification of commands like residue_function_type in a case defining stages will be ignored. Instead, they must be placed in the definition of another case (case 3 in the above example). Consequently, residue_function_type will be active for both stages.

On the other hand, commands controlling the step size and the tolerances for the residual, solution, etc., can be defined in a case containing stage specifications.

Components

A component can implement a weakly-coupled fully-nonlinear aero-elastic tool-chain. In this case, the values taken by the component are the current (nodal) displacements (calculated by B2000++), and the values returned by the component are the (nodal) forces. To this end, at each Newton iteration (or each n-th Newton iteration), the component invokes the spatial coupling tool, the CFD mesh deformation tool, the CFD solver, and again the spatial coupling tool.

dof_init, dofdot_init

dof_init and dofdot_init define initial boundary conditions, i.e DOF fields (such as displacements or temperatures) or initial time derivatives of DOF fields (such as velocities). The dynamic (transient) or non-stationary solver will include initial DOF fields at time=0. If no initial conditions are specified the solver will assume all initial boundary conditions to be 0. A dof_init or dofdot_init set is identified by IDENT (non-negative int). IDENT is the number which is referenced by the dof_init and dofdot_init options of case. Sets with an identifier of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

MDL Specification

dof_init IDENT | dofdot_init IDENT
   value V
   DOFLIST...
   NODESPECIFICATION...
   ...
end

Values and Degrees-of-Freedom

value V

Specifies the value V (float) to be assigned to subsequently specified nodes. The value is assigned to a subsequently defined DOF’s!

dof I1 or dof [I1 I2 ...]

Specifies the DOF(s) identifier(s) for which the value v will be assigned. DOF identifiers can be integers (DOF numbers are 1,2,3,…) or strings:

  • During stress analysis, UX, UY, and UZ represent the displacement in the x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively.

  • During stress analysis, RX, RY, and RZ represent the rotation (in radians) about the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively.

  • During heat analysis, T means the temperature.

  • The degrees-of-freedom that are present at a given node depend on the elements to which this node is connected. Specifying a value for a degree-of-freedom that does not exist will have no effect.

Node Specification

allnodes

Assign the initial conditions to all defined nodes of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR. Default is 1.

epatch IDENT P1-P8|E1-E12|F1-F6|B

Includes nodes generated with an existing epatch identified by IDENT. Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with P1 to P8. Patch edge nodes are specified with E1 to E12.Patch face nodes are specified with F1 to F6. The patch body nodes are specified with B.

nodes N or nodes [N1 N2 ...]

Explicitly specifies a nodes identifiers (of the current branch) to which the initial conditions will be assigned.

nodeset NAME

Specifies the name of the node set which the initial conditions will be assigned.

Examples

Create a uniform dofdot (velocity field) in the global z-direction. Note that all other DOFS are implicitly set to 0.

dofdot_init 123
   value 5  dof UZ  allnodes
end

The field must be activated with the dofdot_init parameters of case:

case 1
  ...
  dofdot_init 123
  ...
end

ebc

The ebc command specifies essential boundary conditions, such as single-point constraints, and assigns them to variables, such as displacements in case of solid mechanics, temperatures in case of heat transfer analysis, etc. An``ebc`` set is identified by the identifier IDENT (non-negative int). IDENT is the number which is referenced by the ebc parameter of the case definition. Sets with an identifier of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

Essential boundary conditions can be specified for nodes or, in case where elements have internal degrees-of-freedom, for elements.

MDL Specification

ebc IDENT [system S] [title T]
parameters
node-specifications
end

Parameters

system BRANCH | LOCAL

Specifies the reference frame in which the conditions are formulated. The default reference frame is LOCAL. BRANCH means that the constraints are formulated with respect to the branch-global reference frame, irrespective of node-local reference frames at any node. LOCAL means that the constraints are applied to the node-local reference frame(s) where defined, and to the branch-global reference frame otherwise.

title "TEXT"

Specifies an optional title for the ebc set.

dof I or dof [I1 I2 ...]

Specifies the DOF(s) identifier(s) for which the value V will be assigned. DOF identifiers can be integers (DOF numbers are 1,2,3,…) or strings:

  • During stress analysis, UX, UY, and UZ represent the displacement in the x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively.

  • During stress analysis, RX, RY, and RZ represent the rotation (in radians) about the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively.

  • During heat analysis, T means the temperature.

  • The degrees-of-freedom that are present at a given node depend on the elements to which this node is connected. Specifying a value for a degree-of-freedom that does not exist will have no effect.

value V

Specifies the value V (float) to be assigned to subsequently specified nodes. The value is assigned to a subsequently defined DOF’s!

Node Specification

allnodes or allelements

Assign the initial conditions to all defined nodes of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR. Default is 1.

epatch IDENT P1-P8|E1-E12|F1-F6|B

Includes nodes generated with an existing epatch identified by IDENT (node specification only). Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with P1 to P8. Patch edge nodes are specified with E1 to E12.Patch face nodes are specified with F1 to F6. The patch body nodes are specified with B.

nodes N or nodes [N1 N2 ...]

Specifies node identifiers (of the current branch) to which the initial conditions will be assigned.

nodeset NAME or elementset NAME

Includes nodes or elements from a nodeset or from an elementset.

Examples

Specify the ebc set 123: For the mesh node 1, set all 6 DOF’s to 0. For the mesh nodes 9,10,11,12, set the z-rotation to 0, and for mesh node 9, the y-displacement 2 to 0.12.

ebc 123
  value 0.   dof [UX UY UZ RX RY RZ] nodes 1
  value 0.   dof RZ                  nodes 9
  value 0.12 dof UY                  nodes [9 10 11 12]
end

The ebc set must then be activated by referencing it in one of the cases to be computed. Example:

case 20
   ...
   ebc 123
   ...
end

Element-internal Degrees-of-Freedom

Some element formulations involve internal degrees-of-freedom. With the ebc command it is possible to prescribe values to these DOFs, e.g for debugging purposes. With elements, the individual degrees-of-freedom are identified by numbers, starting from 1.

For example the shell element Q4.S.MITC.E4 is an enhanced-assumed-strain element with 4 internal degrees-of-freedom. Locking them for all elements is done as follows:

value 0 dof [1/4] allelements

Additional information

To activate essential boundary condition sets, add the required essential boundary condition set identifiers to the case definition.

Node-local coordinate systems can be defined with the transformations command. The B2000++ coordinate systems are described in the programming manual.

Natural boundary conditions can be defined with the nbc command.

Please read the additional notes in the description of the join command for information on branch connectivity.

edgeset

edgeset defines an element edge set list containing pairs (IDENT, EX) of a specific branch. IDENT is the external element identifier and EX the edge identifier (E1, E2, …). The list is identified by the NAME of the set (a string not exceeding 40 characters). Note hat edge sets are not defined for special elements, such as RBE.

MDL Specification

edgeset NAME sorted|unsorted
    branch BR
    EX
    edgeset NAME1
    epatch IDENT
    n1 n2 ...
end

Parameters

sorted | unsorted

sorted creates an ordered set with all duplicates removed. unsorted adds nodes as they are specified. Default is unsorted. sorted or unsorted must be specified directly after NAME and before any other parameter.

branch BR

Specifies the branch number to which subsequently defined element identifiers will be assigned. The default branch is 1. BR remains active until a new branch is specified or end is encountered.

EX Specifies the edge number x (1.:12). All subsequently listed

elements will inherit this edge number. The default element edge identifier is E1. Chapter gelements describes the element edge definitions for relevant elements.

edgeset IDENT

Copies all edge identifiers found in an existing edge set IDENT to the current face set.

epatch IDENT E1 ... E12

Copies all edge identifiers of the edge Ex of the existing epatch with identifier IDENT.

N1 N2 ...

Specifies a list of external element identifiers. The current edge number will be assigned to these element identifiers until a new edge number is specified (if any).

Examples

Specify the edge set edge1 containing the edge identifiers of the edge of a plate patch consisting of 2 by 2 Q4 elements for (default) branch 1.

edgeset "edge1"
   e1 1 2
   e3 3 4
end

epatch

MDL Specification

epatch IDENT
   parameters
end

Description

epatch generates simple one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional regular meshes. For one-dimensional patches, straight or arc lines can be modeled. For two-dimensional patches, four-sided surfaces described by analytical functions can be modeled, creating Q shell-type elements. For three dimensional patches, cubes described by analytical functions can be modeled, creating HE solid-type elements. In addition to nodes end elements, epatch also generates lists containing vertex, edge, face, and body node indices and element indices, thus facilitating the generation of boundary conditions. Note, however, that the epatch command is by no means a substitute to any modeling and meshing software.

Any number of element patches can be generated within the same branch definition, provided that the patch boundary nodes match, i.e. nodes are not merged automatically if several element patches are generated in one and the same branch. Thus, it is often easier to generate one element patch per branch and connect the branches with the automatic option of the join command.

Element patches generate elements as follows (see also the figure below for the definition of i, j, and k): For all elements in the k-direction, for all elements in the j-direction, generate elements in the i-direction, incrementing the element number by one.

Note that the default initial element number and the default initial node number are both set to the highest internal element or node number plus 1, defined so far for the current branch. Internal element and node numbers start with 1. If patches and element and node definitions with the elements and nodes commands are defined within the same branch please consider making use the element start index start_element_id or the node start index start_node_id options to avoid conflicts with external element or node numbers defined by the elements or nodes commands and the epatch element and node generation, which generates internal node numbers.

A patch is meshed independently of any other patches, and when defining multiple patches, the coinciding nodes of adjacent patches will not be connected. Coinciding nodes can be connected by means of the join (using the automatic option).

_images/epatch-2d.png

Two-dimensional element patch definition: Patch edges. The patch face is f7 or mid_surface.

_images/epatch-3d-edge.svg

Three-dimensional element patch definitions: Patch edges.

_images/epatch-3d-face.svg

Two- and three-dimensional element patch definitions: Patch faces.

Parameters

eltype T

Specifies the element type T of the patch. For 1D patches elements of type B, C, L and R are allowed. For 2D patches elements of type T and Q are allowed. For 3D patches, element types HE and - to some extent - TE are allowed. The element type may only be specified once for one and the same patch.

geometry GTYPE

Specifies the geometry type of the patch to be generated. The following geometry types GTYPE and their parameters can be defined:

ARCH

Creates a line mesh of beam/rod/cable/line elements along a circular arch that is defined in the branch x-y plane and with the origin of the circular segment at (0,0,0). Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 (int), the radius R (float), the start angle angle1 (float), and the end angle angle2` `(float). The optional parameter ``open (YES``|``NO) applies only in case where the segment makes a full circle. By default, the coinciding nodes are merged. Setting open to YES retains the duplicate nodes.

cylinder

Specifies a cylindrical shell segment. The generated segment is defined in the branch x-y plane, with the origin of the circular segment at (0,0,0), a radius r, and with the angles phi1 (start angle) and phi2 (end angle) rotating around the z-axis. The axial direction is in the branch z-direction. Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 in the circumferential i-direction and the number of elements ne2 in the axial j-direction. The thickness parameter is element type dependent.

cube

Creates an isoparametric solid mesh of a cube defined by the 8 corner nodes p1 to p8. Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 in the i-direction, the number of elements ne2 in the j-direction, and the number of elements ne3 in the k-direction. All other parameters are element type dependent.

line

Creates a straight line mesh of beam/rod/cable/line elements extending from point p1 to point p2, with an optional area or thickness t. Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 in the i-direction. All other parameters are element type dependent.

plate

Generates an isoparametric rectangular plate mesh defined by the four corner nodes p1 to p4. The plate has a optional uniform thickness t. Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 in the plate i-direction and the number of elements ne2 in the plate j-direction. All other parameters are element type dependent. The thickness parameter is element type dependent.

ring

Specifies a 2D shell element mesh of a ring. The ring is defined in the branch x-y plane, with the origin of the circular segment at (0,0,0) and with the following keywords: phi1 (start angle) and phi2 (end angle) rotating around the z-axis define the angles. The ring segment has an inner radius radius1 and an outer radius radius2. Required meshing parameters are the number of elements ne1 in the circumferential (i-) direction and the number of elements ne2 in the radial (j-) direction. The thickness parameter is element type dependent. The open parameter applies only in case where the segment makes a full circle. By default, the coinciding nodes are merged. Setting open to yes retains the duplicate nodes.

tube

Specifies a solid mesh of a tube. The tube section is defined in the branch x-y plane, with the origin of the circular segment at (0,0,0) and with the following keywords: The angles phi1 (start angle) and phi2 (end angle) rotating around the z-axis defined the angles. The tube has an inner radius radius1 and an outer radius radius2. The length of the tube is defined by the length. Required meshing parameters are and the number of elements ne1 in the circumferential (i-) direction, the number of elements ne2 in the radial (j-) direction, and the number of elements ne3 in the global z (k-) direction. The open parameter applies only in case where the segment makes a full circle. By default, the coinciding nodes are merged. Setting open to yes retains the duplicate nodes.

local NONE | EDGES | ALL

Specifies if the generated nodes will be assigned a node-local DOF reference coordinate system (see transformations and nodes). The node-local coordinate system is generated according to the geometry type. edges generates local reference coordinate systems for all nodes placed on patch edges. ALL generates local reference coordinate systems for all nodes.

ne1 N

Specifies the number of elements in regular patch in the logical i-direction, see figure above (required for all patches).

ne2 N

Specifies the number of elements in regular patch in the logical j-direction, see figure above (required for 2D and 3D patches).

ne3 N

Specifies the number of elements in regular patch in the logical k-direction, see figure above (required for 3D patches).

orientation UX UY UZ VX VY VZ

Defines a local base by which all epatch nodes are rotated (refer to the section on orientation below for more details).

start_element_id IDENT

Element identifier of first element generated. All subsequent elements are generated by incrementing the element identifier by 1, first in the i-direction, then in the j-direction, and, finally, in the k-direction. The default value is 1.

start_node_id IDENT

Node identifier of first node generated. All subsequent nodes are generated by incrementing the node identifier by 1, first in the i-direction, then in the j-direction, and, finally, in the k-direction. The default value is 1.

translation TX TY TZ

Translates the patch in the branch global x-, y- and z-direction.

All other keywords are element-dependent.

The orientation directive allows to change the orientation of any patch. This may be useful in the case of cylindrical patches which have a default orientation (the cylindrical axis is aligned with the branch-global z-direction).

orientation
  [base u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3]
  [rotate axis x|y|z angle a]
  [rotate axis u1 u2 u3 angle a]
  [translate x y z]
end

The following directives can be used to modify the orientation:

base u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3

Calculate the base from the vectors u and v as follows: u defines the patch base e1, u x v defines the patch base e3, and e3 x u defines the patch base e2.

rotate axis X|Y|Z angle A

Rotate the current patch base about the X, Y, or Z axis by A degrees, and according to the right-hand rule. Successive rotations can be specified.

rotate axis U1 U2 U3 angle A

Rotate the current patch base about the axis defined by the vector u1 u2 u3, by a degrees, and according to the right-hand rule. Successive rotations can be specified.

translate TY TY TZ

Translate the current patch by TX in the x-direction, TY in the y-direction, and TZ in the z-direction. TX, TY, and TZ are float values. The default translation is 0.0 in all three directions.

All element attributes are element type dependent and can be consulted in the elements sections of the user manual.

Examples

Generate a cylindrical panel mesh with a 90 degree opening, starting at phi=0. The panel has a radius of 1., a thickness of 0.002, and a length of 1. All nodes shall have a local cylindrical coordinate system (r, phi, z). The panel is meshed with Q9 shell elements.

epatch 1
  geometry cylinder
  radius 1.0 thickness 0.002 phi1 0.0 phi2 90.0 length 1.0
  local all
  ne1 10 ne2 5
  eltype Q9.S.MITC
  mid 1
end

Generate a cylindrical panel mesh identical to the one in the preceding example, i.e with a 90 degree opening, starting at phi=0. The panel has a radius of 1., a thickness of 0.002, and a length of 1. All nodes shall have a local cylindrical coordinate system (r, phi, z). The panel is meshed with Q9 shell elements. The cylinder shall be rotated by +90 degrees around the y-axis: This is achieved by defining local base vectors with the orientation parameter.

epatch 1
  geometry cylinder
  radius 1.0 thickness 0.002 phi1 0.0 phi2 90.0 length 1.0
  orientation
    base 1 0 0  0 0 1
  end
  local all
  ne1 10 ne2 5
  eltype Q9.S.MITC
  mid 1
end

Generate a cylindrical panel mesh with a 90 degree opening, starting at phi=0. The panel has a radius of 1., a thickness of 0.002, and a length of 1. All nodes shall have a local cylindrical coordinate system (r, phi, z). The panel is meshed with 10 by 5 Q8 shell elements.

epatch 1
  geometry cylinder
  eltype Q8.S.MITC
  radius 10. thickness 2.0 phi1 45.0 phi2 135.0 length 20.
  local all
  ne1 10 ne2 5
  mid 1
end
_images/epatch_cylinder_mesh_q8.png

EPATCH example: Cylindrical panel (Q9 shell mesh).

_images/epatch_cylinder_nlcs.png

EPATCH example: Cylindrical panel (Q9 shell mesh) and node-local cylindrical coordinate system in directions (r,phi,z).

Additional Information

Nodes generated by epatch commands are stored as NODESET datasets in the form NODESET.br.0.0.name`, where the name is generated as follows:

NODESET.br.0.0.name datasets generated by epatch

Type of set

Name

Additional information

Body node set

EPATCH-x-B

x is the integer patch identifier. There is only one body node set per patch and branch.

Edge sets of nodes

EPATCH-x-y

x is the integer patch identifier and y the patch edge (E1 to E12). Patch edges are numbered in the same way as edges of Q or HE elements.

Face sets of nodes

EPATCH-x-y

x is the integer patch identifier and y patch face (F1 to F6). Patch faces are numbered in the same way as faces of Q or HE elements.

Epatch vertices

EPATCH-x-P

x is the integer patch identifier. Note that patch vertices are listed in the same sequence as nodes defining L, Q, or HE elements.

ELEMENTSET.br.0.0.name datasets generated by epatch

Type of set

Name

Additional information

Body element set

EPATCH-x-B

x is the integer patch identifier. There is only one body element set per patch and branch.

EDGESET.br.0.0.name datasets generated by epatch

Type of set

Name

Additional information

Edge sets of nodes

EPATCH-x-y

x is the integer patch identifier and y the patch edge (E1 to E12). Patch edges are numbered in the same way as edges of Q or HE elements.

FACESET.br.0.0.name datasets generated by epatch

Type of set

Name

Additional information

Face sets of nodes

EPATCH-x-y

x is the integer patch identifier and y patch face (F1 to F6). Patch faces are numbered in the same way as faces of Q or HE elements.

elements

elements defines mesh elements on a one by one element basis. To generate elements (and nodes) for various simple geometries, make use of the epatch command.

An element is defined by the element type, the parameters describing the element properties and the external element identifier IDENT and the element node connectivity list.

MDL Specification

elements
   eltype ET
   parameters
   IDENT N1 N2 N3 ...
   ...
end

Parameters

Except for the element type and the node connectivity definition below, the required and optional element parameters depend on the element type and are explained in the specific element sections.

eltype ET

Specifies the element type (required if element property parameters are defined). All elements defined thereafter will be of type ET until a new ET is specified. eltype always invalidates all required attributes and resets all optional attributes to their default values.

It is possible to initially specify a dummy element type when defining the element connectivities and to change it later. This can be useful when the mesh and the elementsets are created by an external program, or when the mesh definition shall be independent of the operator. In this case, the correct element type and the element attributes need to be set at a later stage (see below). The following dummy element types are available:

  • P for point elements.

  • L2 and L3 for linear and quadratic line elements, respectively.

  • T3 and T6 for linear and quadratic triangular elements, respectively.

  • Q4, Q8, and Q9 for quadrilateral elements.

  • TE4 and TE10 for linear and quadratic tetrahedral elements, respectively.

  • PR6 and PR15 for linear and quadratic prismatic elements, respectively.

  • HE8, HE20, and HE27 for hexahedral elements.

IDENTD N1 N2 N3 ...

Specify a single element with external element identifier IDENT and external element node identifiers N1 N2 N3... defining the element node connectivity. See the specific elements sections for a definition of the element node connectivity.

IDENT [ni | nodeset NAME ...]

Defines an element with external identifier IDENT and a variable number of node identifiers specified explicitly or by referencing. nodeset includes all nodes of a nodeset in the current list.

Examples

Define two four node quadrilateral shell element with the external numbers 10001 and 10002, having a constant shell thickness of 1.3 (for the element parameter see Shell Elements):

elements
   eltype Q4.S.MITC
   mid 2
   thickness 1.3
   10001 1 2 4 5
   10002 2 3 5 6
   10001 1 2 11 12
end

For elements with a potentially large number of nodes, such as RBE elements, the use of one or several nodesets (not node lists!) may be convenient:

eltype RBE
   1001  [100001  nodeset left]
   1002  [100002  nodeset right]
   1003  [100002  nodeset front  nodeset back]
end

Specify 4 elements: Two four node quadrilateral shell elements with a constant thickness of 1.3, and two elements of the same element type with a constant thickness of 1.5:

elements
   eltype Q4.S.MITC
   mid 1
   thickness 1.3
   10001 1 2 11 12
   10002 2 3 12 13
   thickness 1.5
   10003 3 4 13 14
   10004 4 5 14 15
end

Like the previous example, but this time, the element type and element attributes are specified after the element connectivities:

# Specify element shape and connectivities only
elements
   eltype Q4
   10001 1 2 11 12
   10002 2 3 12 13
   10003 3 4 13 14
   10004 4 5 14 15
end

# Define element sets
elementset thin
   10001 10002
end
elementset thick
  10003 10004
end

# Now add element parameters
elements
   eltype Q4.S.MITC  mid 1  thickness 1.3  elementset thin
   eltype Q4.S.MITC  mid 1  thickness 1.5  elementset thick
 end

elementset

elementset defines a list containing external element identifiers N1, N2, … The list is identified by the NAME of the set (a string not exceeding 40 characters). Element identifiers are positive int values. Element sets can be specified for all element types.

MDL Specification

elementset NAME sorted|unsorted
    branch BR
    elementset NAME1
    epatch IDENT
    N1 N2 ...
end

Parameters

sorted | unsorted

sorted creates an ordered set with all duplicates removed. unsorted adds nodes as they are specified. Default is unsorted. sorted or unsorted must be specified directly after NAME and before any other parameter.

branch BR

Specifies the branch number to which subsequently defined element identifiers will be assigned. The default branch is 1. BR remains active until a new branch is specified or end is encountered.

elementset NAME

Copies all element identifiers found in an existing element set NAME1 to the current set.

epatch IDENT

Copies all elements identifiers defined for the existing epatch with identifier IDENT to the current set.

faceset

faceset defines a list assigning face number to elements, creating pairs (elementid, faceid) of a specific branch. elementid is the external element identifier and FX the face identifier (see below). The list is identified by the NAME of the set (a string not exceeding 40 characters). Note hat face sets are not defined for wire (beam, rods) elements nor for special elements, such as RBE elements.

MDL Specification

faceset NAME sorted|unsorted
   branch BR
   Fx
   faceset NAME
   epatch IDENT
   N1 N2 ...
   ...
end

Parameters

sorted | unsorted

sorted creates an ordered set with all duplicates removed. unsorted adds nodes as they are specified. Default is unsorted. sorted or unsorted must be specified directly after NAME and before any other parameter.

branch BR

Specifies the branch number to which subsequently defined element identifiers will be assigned. The default branch is 1. BR remains active until a new branch is specified or end is encountered.

Fx

Specifies the face number x (1..7). All subsequently listed elements will inherit this face number. The default element face number is 1. Chapter gelements describes the element face definitions for relevant elements.

faceset NAME

Copies all face identifiers found in an existing face set NAME to the current face set.

epatch IDENT  F1 | F2 | F3 | F4 | F5 | F6

Copies all face identifiers of the face Fx of the existing epatch with identifier IDENT.

N1 N2 ...

Specifies a list of external element identifiers. The current face number will be assigned to these element identifiers until a new face number is specified (if any).

Examples

Specify the face set surface1 containing the face identifiers of the element faces (face F1) of a plate patch consisting of 2 by 2 Q4 elements 1, 2, 3, and 4 of (default) branch 1:

faceset "surface1"
  F1 1 2 3 4
end

field_transfer

MDL Specification

field_transfer IDENT
   parameters
end

field_transfer specifies coupling conditions between two adjacent but in general incompatible surface meshes. In stress analysis, it represents a kinematic coupling condition. A typical application is global-local analysis with shell-to-solid, shell-to-shell, or solid-to-solid coupling. Another application is skin-stiffened structures with independent meshes for skin, stringers, frames, etc. In heat analysis, it couples the temperature fields of the two adjacent surfaces.

The coupling is a weighted-residual method based on the \(L:{2}\) norm of the difference of the interpolated fields at the surfaces.

A field_transfer condition must be activated in the case command. If the identifier IDENT is 0, the coupling condition will be automatically added to all analysis cases. It is required to specify a constraint method other than the default reduction method for which the accuracy of the calculated solution cannot be guaranteed when field_transfer conditions are active. The constraint method is defined in the case block, see section Linear and Nonlinear Constraint Control.

The surfaces to be coupled are defined by interface i where i is either 1 or 2. An arbitrary number of surface sets faceset may be added to each interface.

When the analysis is started, a common-refined mesh consisting of surface triangles is created from the intersection of the two coupling interfaces, according to the element face shapes. In the case of flat geometries, this common-refined mesh coincides exactly with both surface meshes. In the case of curved geometries, the common-refined mesh approximates both surface meshes. The approximation error can be reduced by setting num_subdivision to a positive value. In this case, the surface mesh of the respective interface will be n-times recursively subdivided.

The calculation of the interpolated field at the interfaces is conducted using the shape functions of the involved elements. Integration over the triangles of the common-refined mesh is carried out according to the element interpolation order(s). This way, the coupling is accurate for low-order as well as for high-order elements.

The transfer directive specifies the type of field to be transferred and on which interface i the residuum shall be minimized.

Parameters

interface I faceset IDENT

Adds a faceset to the interface I.

interface I epatch IDENT FX

Adds an epatch face FX to the interface I, where x=1..7.

interface I num_subdivisions N

Subdivides the interface by N subdvisions.

transfer displacement minimise_on interface I transfer temperature minimise_on interface I

Field to be transferred.

join

join command specifies equality between the DOF’s of nodes joined together. join is identified by IDENT (positive or zero value int). IDENT is the identifier referenced by the join option of case. join sets with an identifier of 0 will be activated for all analysis cases.

The join command is required if more than one branch (mesh) is defined and the branches (meshes) are to be connected or if nodes of the same branch (mesh) are to be connected explicitly. Note that the same effect can be obtained by specifying linear constraints, see linc, although on a DOF by DOF base.

join must be follow all nodes and elements specifications of an MDL file.

MDL Specification

join IDENT
   parameters
   coupling conditions...
end

Parameters

delta V

Specifies the threshold value V in the global x-, y- and z-directions for comparing nodes (relevant for the automatic parameter only). This option must be issued before automatic in order to take effect. If not specified, the threshold value will be computed as a function of the bounding box.

automatic

Establishes the node connectivity automatically by comparing node positions. The nodes are transformed to the global-global coordinate system. If the nodes are close enough (see delta parameter) they will be linked. Note that the node and dof coupling commands may not be specified if automatic is selected. No other parameter can be specified after the ``automatic`` option.

Coupling Conditions Specification

node BR1 N1 BR2 N2

Generates links node-wise. Node N1 of branch BR1 is linked to node N2 of branch BR2. The automatic command may not be specified if node is selected. Branch and node numbers are external.

dof BR1 N1 DOF1 BR2 N2 DOF2

Generates links between degrees-of-freedom. The degree-of-freedom DOF1 of node N1 of branch`` BR1`` is connected to the degree-of-freedom DOF2 of node N2 of branch BR2. Branch and node numbers are external. degree-of-freedom numbers are positive integers.

Examples

The most common use of join is:

join 0
   automatic
end

Explicit joining of nodes: Connect node 3 t node 33, both in branch (mesh) 1.

join 0
   node 1 3 1 33
end

Additional Notes

Master nodes are automatically determined as follows: The node belonging to the lower branch number in the link list becomes the master node.

For automatically computed link lists, the node lists are compared branch-wise and in ascending order (internal branch numbering). The first encountered node that matches another node in the list becomes the master node. The matching criteria are defined by a cube of size (delta, delta, delta) constructed around the node.

linc

MDL Specification

linc IDENT [tol_drop V]
   equation1
   equation2
   ...
end

Description

The linc command specifies one or more linear constraint equations. Linear constraint equations and their terms can be specified in any order. There are no a priori restrictions on the nodes and degrees-of-freedom that may be specified in linear constraints, since B2000++ does not distinguish between master and slave nodes.

A linc set is identified by IDENT (positive or zero value int). IDENT is the number which is referenced by the linc option of the case command.

Note

Sets with an IDENT of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

The constraint equations are of the form

\[c_{i} \times u_{i} + c_{0} = 0, i=1,n\]

where the coefficients \(c_{i}\) pertain to the dof’s of the global equation system.

In case nodes are to be explicitly connected it is preferable to make use of the join command, because it connects all DOF’s and it also ensures that node types are processed properly.

Parameters

tol_drop V

Sets the value for the drop tolerance. Default is 1e-4. Any term of subsequently specified equations with an absolute weight below the drop tolerance will be ignored.

Equations Specification

equation NC C_0 B1 N1 DOF1 C1 ... Bn Nn DOFn Cn

Specifies a complete constraint equation with n terms as listed above. Each term is described by the external branch number Bi, the external node number Ni, the degree-of-freedom DOFi relating to node Ni, and the constant Ci.

Additional Information

Depending on how linear constraints are enforced (see Linear and Nonlinear Constraint Control), the system of linear equations may need to be modified to ensure a well conditioned global stiffness matrix. Automatically generated linear constraint equations may contain very small weights, which my result in a poorly conditioned global stiffness matrix. When using the default reduction method for linear constraints, it is recommended to set tol_drop to a sufficiently large value.

If weights below 1e-4 are specified but the drop tolerance is smaller, the B2000++ input processor b2ip++ will print a warning.

To check whether the calculated solution is accurate, an error analysis on the matrix factorization and back-substitution process can be conducted by specifying the B2000++ command-line option

b2000++ -l 'debug of linear_algebra' DBNAME

when executing B2000++.

Example

Establish a rigid link between displacements in the x-direction (dof 1) by coupling node 23 of branch 1 to node 45 of branch 4:

linc 0
   equation 2 0.0  1 23 1 1.0  4 45 1 -1.0
end

material

material specifies the physical properties of an element material. Element materials are identified by a positive integer IDENT, which is then referenced by the elements (see elements). Element material definition is branch-independent, i.e. the element material identifiers IDENT are global. The material command creates the data set MATERIAL.id. The detailed material specification is described in the materials section.

MDL Specification

material IDENT
   type T
   parameters
end

nbc

The nbc command specifies natural boundary conditions (NBC) applied to the DOF’s of specific nodes. Natural boundary conditions will be part of the right-hand side of the problem to be solved.

An nbc set is identified by the identifier IDENT (non-negative int). IDENT is the number which is referenced by the nbc option of the case definition. Sets with an identifier of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

An nbc is of a certain type (i.e. concentrated forces, line loads, surface fractions, heat) and is specified either in the branch-global reference frame, the node-local reference frame, the element edge or face reference frame, or the deformed element edge or face reference frame.

A natural boundary condition set is activated with the nbc option of the case command.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT [type T] [system S] [title "text"]
   parameters...
   node specification...
   ...
end

General Parameters

type concentrated_loads | line_loads | surface_tractions | pressure | body_loads | accelerations | body_heat

Specifies the type of the natural boundary conditions defined in the current set. Default is concentrated_loads.

system branch | local | local_deformed

Specifies the reference frame in which the conditions are formulated. The default reference frame depends on the selected type.

title "text"

Specifies an optional title for the nbc set.

nbc Concentrated Loads

The type concentrated_loads (the default) means that concentrated loads (i.e. forces in stress analysis and heat in heat transfer analysis) are assigned to degrees-of-freedom at individual nodes or multiple nodes.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT [type concentrated_loads] [system S] [title T]
  value V
  dof list
  node specification...
  value V
  dof list
  node specification...
  ...
end

Parameters

The degrees-of-freedom that are present at a given node depend on the elements to which this node is connected. Specifying a value for a degree-of-freedom that does not exist will have no effect.

value V

Specify the magnitude of a single value (float) i.e concentrated load or heat). This value is then assigned to one or several degrees-of-freedom by means of the directive dof. The couple (value, degrees-of-freedom) is then assigned to individual nodes or collections of nodes. You can only specify a single value V.

dof I1 dof [I1 I2 ...]

The directive dof is followed by a list which identifies the degrees-of-freedom:

  • In stress analysis, FX, FY, and FZ represent a force in the x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively.

  • In stress analysis, MX, MY, and MZ represent a moment about the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively.

  • In heat analysis, Q means the rate of heat flow (power).

Node Specification

allnodes

Assign the concentrated loads to all defined nodes of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR (positive int). Default is 1.

epatch IDENT p1-p8 | e1-e12 | f1-f6 | b

Applies to conditions to node lists of an existing epatch identified by IDENT. Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with p1 to p8. The collection of nodes that are located at a patch edge are specified with e1 to e12. The collection of nodes that are located at a patch face are specified with f1 to f6. The collection of nodes of the whole patch body are specified with b.

nodes N or nodes [N1, N2 ...]

Apply the condition(s) to a node or a list of nodes.

nodeset NAME

Specifies the name of the node set to which the concentrated loads will be assigned.

Examples

Set the force in the y-direction to 25.0 for mesh node 5. For mesh nodes 9,10,11,12, set the moment in the y-direction to 60.0. Since the default reference frame is node-local, the directions will be the node-local directions if there are local coordinate system defined for these nodes. Otherwise, the directions will be aligned with the branch reference frame.

nbc 1
   value 25.0 dof FY nodes 5
   value 60.0 dof MY nodes [9 10 11 12]
end

Apply a concentrated force in z-direction to the center node (p5) of a square plate meshed with the epatch command. Note: The center node is defined only if the number of elements in the patch directions (ne1 and ne2) are even!

epatch 1
   geometry plate
   p1 0. 0. 0.
   p2 1. 0. 0.
   p3 1. 1. 0.
   p4 0. 1. 0.
   thickness 0.01
   eltype Q9.S.MITC
   mid 1
   ne1 10
   ne2 10
end

nbc 1
   value 5. dof FZ epatch 1 p5
end

nbc Line Loads

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT type line_loads [system S] [title T]
   line_loads L1 L2 L3
   edge specification...
   line_loads L1 L2 L3
   edge specification...
   ...
end

Specifying type line_loads means that the set consists of line loads (force per unit length in stress analysis), which will be integrated along the element edges during the analysis by the element implementations. The element thickness is not taken into account.

Line loads are meaningful for shell elements (edges 1-4), 2D elements (edges 1-4), and cable/rod and beam elements (edge 1). Irrespective of the element type, line loads are specified with 3 components L1 L2 L3 (no square brackets!).

The default reference frame is local. For cable/rod elements and beam elements, this means the element axis. Only the value of L1 is used while L2 L3 will be ignored. For shell elements and 2D elements, the edge-local reference frames will be used. They are identical to the face-local reference frames of a corresponding solid element:

  • L1 coincides with the edge direction.

  • L2 coincides with the element surface normal. For cable/rod elements, beam elements, and 2D elements, L2 will be ignored.

    • L3 coincides with the outward-pointing face/edge normal. For cable/rod and beam elements, L3 will be ignored.

The reference frame local_deformed is intended for geometrically nonlinear stress analysis and otherwise identical to local. The reference frame branch means that L1 L2 L3 is in the branch-global x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

Warning

The default reference frame is local. If you want to generate loads in the (branch) global system, you must specify

system branch

before generating loads.

Parameters

edgeset "NAME"

Specifies the name of the edge set to which the line loads will be assigned.

epatch IDENT e1-e12

Specifies an epatch edge to which the line loads will be assigned.

Examples

A line load in y-direction is applied to the outer edge of a clamped cantilever beam.

epatch 1
  geometry plate
  p1 0.   0.  0.
  p2 100. 0.  0.
  p3 100. 10. 0.
  p4 0.   10. 0.
  thickness 0.01
  eltype Q9.S.2D.TL
  mid 1
  ne1 10
  ne2 1
end

ebc 1
  value 0. dof [UX UY] epatch 1 e4
end

nbc 1 type line_loads
  line_loads 0 .1 0
  epatch 1 e2
end

nbc Surface Traction and Pressure Loads

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT type surface_tractions [system S] [title T]
   surface_tractions T1 T2 T3 | pressure P
   face specification...
   surface_tractions T1 T2 T3 | pressure P
   face specification...
   ...
end

Surface tractions are forces of heat per unit area. The will be integrated along the element faces during the analysis by the element implementations. In case of 2D elements and shell elements, the element thickness is taken into account.

Surface traction loads are meaningful for 3D elements (faces 1-6), shell elements (faces 1-4 for the sides, face 5 for the lower surface, face 6 for the upper surface, and face 7 for the mid-surface), and 2D elements (faces 1-4 for the sides). Surface traction load are specified with 3 components T1 T2 T3.

Specifying pressure P `` is equivalent to ``surface_tractions 0 0 -P.

The default reference frame is local, which means that the face-local reference frames of the initial configuration will be used (see also Generic Elements):

  • T1 coincides with the edge direction in case of 2D and shell elements.

  • T2 coincides with the element surface normal in case of 2D and shell elements.

  • T3 coincides with the outward-pointing face normal.

The reference frame local_deformed is intended for geometrically nonlinear stress analysis and otherwise identical to local. The reference frame branch means that T1 T2 T3 is in the branch-global x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

Parameters

faceset "NAME"

Specifies the name of the face set to which the loads will be assigned.

epatch IDENT f1-f7

Specifies an epatch face to which the loads will be assigned.

Examples

A uniform pressure is applied to the mid-surface of a square plate which is simply-supported. The plate is generated with epatch command. The nbc 2 is equivalent to the nbc set 1.

epatch 1
   geometry plate
   p1 0. 0. 0.
   p2 1. 0. 0.
   p3 1. 1. 0.
   p4 0. 1. 0.
   thickness 0.01
   eltype Q9.S.MITC
   mid 1
   ne1 4
   ne2 4
 end

nbc 1 type surface_tractions
   surface_tractions 0. 0. -1.
   epatch 1 f7
end

nbc 2 type pressure
   pressure 1.
   epatch 1 f7
end

nbc Body Loads

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT type body_loads [system S] [title T]
   body_loads FX FY FZ
   element specification...
   body_loads FX FY FZ
   element specification...
  ...
end

Generates body loads by integrating a force-per-unit-volume field over the element volume.

Note

Do not make use of body loads in case you want to generate loads due to the own mass of a structure under a gravity (acceleration) field - refer to inertia loads.

Body loads can be applied to all 1D- 2D- and 3D elements, but they should not be used with point-mass elements (the type accelerations should be used instead).

Body loads are specified with 3 components F1 F2 F3, defined in the branch-global reference frame (local reference frames are not permitted).

The default reference frame is branch, which means that F1 F2 F3 are specified in the branch-global x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively. If the reference frame local is specified, the element-local reference frame will be used (see also Generic Elements). The reference frame local_deformed is intended for geometrically nonlinear stress analysis and otherwise identical to local.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

Element Specification

allelements

Assign the body loads to all defined elements of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR. Default is 1. directive.

elementset "NAME"

Specifies the name of the element set to which the body loads will be assigned.

epatch IDENT b

Specifies the name of the epatch to which the body loads will be assigned.

Examples

A body load in -y direction is applied to a clamped cantilever beam.

epatch 1
   geometry plate
   p1 0    0   0
   p2 100  0   0
   p3 100  1   0
   p4 0    10  0
   thickness 0.01
   eltype Q9.S.2D.TL
   mid 1
   ne1 10
   ne2 1
end
nbc 1 type body_loads
   body_loads 0 -1 0
   epatch 1 b
end

nbc Inertia Loads

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT type accelerations [system S] [title T]
   accelerations A1 A2 A3
   element specification...
   accelerations A1 A2 A3
   element specification...
  ...
end

Generates inertia loads or gravity loads (d’Alembert forces) by applying a given acceleration vector with components \(a = a_x, a_y, a_z)\) to the mass in the branch global system.

Note

There is currently no global definition for inertia loads, i.e all elements with inertial loads have to be listed explicitly. To apply inertia loads to all elements please make use of the allelements option (see below).

Inertia loads are applied to solidelements, shell and ther 2D elements, rod/cable elements, beam elements, and point-mass elements. During the analysis, the accelerations will be multiplied with the material density and non structural mass (if any) and integrated by the element implementations over the volumes of the specified elements. For point-mass elements, the translational inertia loads are generated by multiplying the accelerations by the element mass.

The default reference frame is branch, which means that the accelerations are specified in the branch-global x-, y-, and z-direction, respectively. If the reference frame local is specified, the element-local reference frame will be used. The reference frame local_deformed is intended for geometrically nonlinear stress analysis and otherwise identical to local.

Note

Inertia loads will not take effect if the material density is no specified! The default material density is 0.

See also Loads in Nonlinear Analysis

Element specification

allelements

Apply the acceleration vector to all defined elements of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR. Default is 1. directive.

elementset "NAME"

Specifies the name of the element set to which the accelerations apply.

epatch IDENT b

Specifies the name of the epatch to which the accelerations apply.

Examples

An acceleration load in the z direction is applied to a thin clamped cantilever plate consisting of two regions with different materials.

epatch 1
  geometry plate
  p1 0.   0.  0.
  p2 50.  0.  0.
  p3 50.  10. 0.
  p4 0.   10. 0.
  thickness 1.
  eltype Q9.S.MITC
  mid 1
  ne1 5
  ne2 1
end

epatch 2
  geometry plate
  p1 50.  0.  0.
  p2 100. 0.  0.
  p3 100. 10. 0.
  p4 50.  10. 0.
  thickness 1.
  eltype Q9.S.MITC
  mid 2
  ne1 5
  ne2 1
end

material 1
  # aluminium
  type isotropic
  e 70e3
  nu 0.3
  density 2.77e-9
end

material 2
  # steel
  type isotropic
  e 200e3
  nu 0.3
  density 8e-9
end

ebc 1
  value 0. dof [UX UY UZ RX RY RZ] epatch 1 e4
end

nbc 1 type accelerations
  accelerations 0 0 -9.806e3
  allelements
end

nbc Body Heat Loads

Body heat loads (power per volume) are heat sources or heat sinks. Body heat loads are meaningful for all heat conduction elements.

To specify heat convection or heat radiation boundary conditions (von-Neumann boundary conditions), the nbc command cannot be used. Instead, specific heat convection and heat radiation ‘overlay’ elements are provided for that purpose.

MDL Specification

nbc IDENT type body_heat [title T]
   body_heat H
   element specification...
   ...
end

Element Specification

allelements

Assign the body loads to all defined elements of the current branch.

branch BR

Specifies the external branch number BR. Default is 1. directive.

elementset "NAME"

Specifies the name of the element set to which the heat will be assigned.

epatch IDENT b

Specifies the name of the epatch to which the heat will be assigned.

Example

A body heat load is applied to a square plate. A fixed temperature is imposed at boundary of the plate (ebc command).

epatch 1
  geometry plate
  p1 0. 0. 0.
  p2 1. 0. 0.
  p3 1. 1. 0.
  p4 0. 1. 0.
  thickness 0.01
  eltype Q9.HEAT.CONDUCTION.2D
  ne1 4 ne2 4
  mid 1
end

material 1
  type heat
  k 0.7
end

ebc 1
  value 20. dof 1
  epatch 1 e1
  epatch 1 e2
  epatch 1 e3
  epatch 1 e4
end

nbc 1 type body_heat
  body_heat 10.e5 allelements
end

nodes

The nodes command specifies individual mesh nodes. Node coordinates are specified in the branch coordinate system if defined, otherwise, they are defined in the global coordinate system. The nodes command may be specified more than once.

Note that nodes and elements with specific simple predefined geometric shapes can be generated instead using the epatch command.

Natural boundary conditions nbc and essential boundary conditions ebc, when applied to the DOF’s and the local coordinate systems, refer to the coordinate system defined here. Consequently, if boundary conditions are to be defined in local coordinates, specify dofref for all nodes with local coordinate systems.

MDL Specification

nodes
   parameters
   node-specification
   ...
end

Parameters

dofref IDENT

Assigns the node-local DOF reference coordinate system identified by IDENT (a positive int). IDENT references the transformation defined by the corresponding transformations command. By setting IDENT to 0, any node-local DOF reference-frame is inactivated for all subsequently defined nodes, which is also the default. Node-local coordinate systems affect only the degrees-of-freedom. Note that dof_ref, dref, and transformation are aliases to dofref`.

Node Specification

IDENT Y Z

Specifies a single node by specifying the external node identifier IDENT (a positive int) and the three float coordinate components X, Y, and Z. Note that B2000++ requires \(\mathbb{R}^3\) space.

Assigning and Changing Node Parameters

Node parameters can be specified after the definition of the nodes, and node parameters may be changed anytime. To this end, the nodes whose parameters shall be set or changed need to be defined in node sets, see example below.

Examples

Define the nodes 1001, 2002, 1003, and 1004. Node 1002 has a local DOF reference frame identified by the transformation 23:

nodes
  1001 10. 0. 0.
  dof_ref 23
  1002 20. 0. 0.
  dof_ref 0
  1003 30. 0. 0.
  1004 40. 0. 0.
end

Define all nodes of a model and assign new parameters (here: a local DOF reference system) to a set of nodes.

nodes
  1 0 0 0
  2 10 0 0
  3 20 5 0
  4 30 20 0
end

...

nodeset abc
  1 2 3 4
end

# Assign new dof ref to nodes 1,2,3,4:
nodes
  dof_ref 2 nodeset abc
end

nodeset

nodeset defines a list containing external node identifiers N1, N2, … The list is identified by the NAME of the set (a string not exceeding 40 characters). Node identifiers are positive int values. Node sets can be specified for all element types.

MDL Specification

nodeset NAME sorted|unsorted
branch | nodeset | epatch
N1 N2 ...
end

Parameters

sorted | unsorted

sorted creates an ordered set with all duplicates removed. unsorted adds nodes as they are specified. Default is unsorted. sorted or unsorted must be specified directly after NAME and before any other parameter.

branch BR

Specifies the branch number BR to which subsequently defined node identifiers will be assigned. The default branch is 1.

nodeset IDENT

Copies all node identifiers found in the existing defined node set IDENT to the current node set.

epatch IDENT Ex | Fx | b

Copies all node identifiers found in the existing node list for the existing epatch with identifier IDENT. Nodes located on the epatch edges are specified with Ex (x in the range 1..12). Nodes located on the epatch faces are specified with F6 ( x in the range 1..7). Nodes located on the epatch body (all nodes of the epatch) are specified with b.

Examples

Define the node set left_edge_1:

nodeset "left_edge_1"
    1 2 3 4 11 6 7 8 9 10
end

The resulting list

1 2 3 4 11 6 7 8 9 10

Define the sorted node set left_edge_1:

nodeset "left_edge_1"
    1 2 3 4 11 6 7 8 9 10
end

The resulting list

1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11

Define the node set left_edge_and_right_edge containing the set ‘left_edge_1’ and additional nodes for (default) branch 1:

nodeset "left_edge_and_right_edge"
    set "left_edge_1"
    20 30 40 50
end

The resulting list

1 2 3 4 11 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50

property

The property command defines element properties identified by the identifier IDENT, a positive integer. In the current version only Bx.S.RS beam elements understand``property``!

MDL Specification

property IDENT
   type T
   parameters...
end

A property is specified with the property type T and the parameters pertaining to the selected property.

Property types

Type

Description

beam_constants

beam_constants describes a beam section by all relevant constants`.

beam_section

beam_section describes a beam section by pre-defined beam section types.

beam_section_matrix

beam_section_ matrix describes a beam section by the beam section matrix (Bx.RS elements only).

beam_section_submodel

beam_section_submodel describes the beam section by a dedicated, separate B2000++ FE submodel.

beam_constants

beam_constants describes a beam section by all relevant constants. They can be either defined by the cross section constants or by the stiffness value, which allow for a more general definition, i.e for non-homogeneous materials. The specific stiffness components are selected by the B2000++ solvers as follows: B2000++ first checks if a component’s stiffness is specified. If found, it is selected. If not, the constants forming the specific component are selected.

Pre-defined beam sections parameters

Parameter

Description

area_moments JYY JZZ JYZ

Second area moments Jyy, Jzz, and Jyz (floats).

bending_stiffness KYY KZZ KYZ

Bending stiffness coefficients E*Jyy, E*Jzz, E*Jyz (floats). If bending_stiffness is not specified, area_moments must be specified instead, defining the bending stiffness together with the material identified by mid.

neutral_axis Y Z

Section y- and z-coordinates of the neutral axis point (floats). This is the point where, when aligned with the beam axis, an applied axial force does not result in a bending deformation. For cross sections that are made of a homogeneous material, the neutral axis point is identical to the centroid. The y and z coordinates are given with respect to the beam axis. Default is 0.0 for all values.

mass M

Mass per unit length of beam (float). If mass is not specified, area has to be specified instead, defining the mass per unit length together with the material identified by mid.

mass_center Y Z

Section y- and z-coordinates of mass center with respect to the beam axis (floats). Default is 0.0 for all values.

mass_inertia_moments IYY IZZ IYZ

Mass inertia moments Iyy, Izz, and Iyz (floats).

mid IDENT

Element material identifier (positive int). Required.

non_structural_mass M

Non-structural mass per unit beam length (float). Default is 0.0.

non_structural_mass_center Y Z

Section y- and z-coordinates of non-structural mass center with respect to the neutral axis point (floats). Default is 0.0 for all values.

shear_correction_factors KYY KZZ KYZ

Shear force correction factors Kyy, Kzz, and Kyz (floats).

shear_stiffness SYY SZZ SYZ

Shear stiffness A*G*Kyy, A*G*Kzz, and A*G*Kyz (floats). If shear_stiffness is not specified, area and shear_correction_factors have to be specified instead, defining the shear stiffness together with the material identified by mid.

spoints [y1 z1 y2 z2 ...]

Defines stress evaluation points at section coordinates y and z. No checks are made, i.e the section stress evaluation procedure will simply compute the stresses at section positions (y,z).

torsional_constant JT

Torsional constant Jt (float).

torsional_stiffness S

Torsional stiffness Jt*G (float). If torsional_stiffness is not defined,torsional_constant has to be specified instead, defining the mass per unit length together with the density of element material identified by mid.

traction_stiffness S

Axial beam stiffness E*A (F type float). If traction_stiffness is not specified, area has to be specified instead, defining the traction stiffness together with the element material identified by mid.

beam_section

The beam_section type generates beam element section properties for some predefined simple beam section shapes, together with the shape parameter. shape defines the beam section shape, followed by the relevant dimension parameters (keywords Dx) the actual dimensions.

The beam section properties are calculated with respect to the local coordinate system placed at the centroid of the section. The local coordinates \(y_{local}\) and \(z_{local}\) coincide with the beam local \(y_{local}\) and \(z_{local}\) coordinates. The shear center offset is defined with respect to the local coordinate system.

Beam section shape types

Parameter

Description

bar

Rectangular cross section: D1 specifies the width, and D2 the height of the bar.

_images/beam_section_bar.png

box

Rectangular thin-walled box: D1 specifies the width, D2 the height, D3 the thickness of the two horizontal walls along y, and D4 the thickness of the 2 vertical walls along z.

_images/beam_section_box.png

C

Thin-walled C shape cross section: D1 specifies the upper and lower profile flange width, D2 the profile web height, D3 the web thickness, and D4 the thickness of the lower and upper flanges.

_images/beam_section_C.png

I

I shape cross section: D1 specifies the profile web height, D2 the lower flange width, D3 the upper flange width, D4 the web thickness, D5 the lower flange thickness, and D6 the upper flange thickness.

_images/beam_section_I.png

L

Thin-walled L shape cross section: D1 specifies the flange width, D2 the web height, D3 the thickness of flange, and D4 the thickness of the web.

_images/beam_section_L.png

rod

Unspecified cross section shape restricted to rod elements (elements without bending). D1 specifies the area of the rod.

T2

Upside-down T cross section: D1 specifies the flange width, D2 the web height, D3 the thickness of flange, and D4 the thickness of the web.

_images/beam_section_T2.png

tube

Circular tube cross section: D1 specifies the outer radius and D2 the inner radius of the rod. If the inner radius is set to 0 a filled rod section is created.

_images/beam_section_tube.png

Red dot: Centroid.

Blue dot: Location of shear center.

Green dots: Stress point locations (if any).

beam_section_matrix

beam_section_matrix Describes the beam section by the Timoshenko beam constitutive 6x6 matrix, as obtained by using external cross-sectional analysis tools. Refer to the beam section submodel definition property for direct integration with the B2000++ cross-section solver.

beam_section_matrix Parameters

Parameter

Description

constitutive_matrix LIST

A list of 36 floats, specifying the symmetric beam constitutive (6x6) matrix in row-major order, calculated at the neutral_axis. The first row/column defines extension, the second and third shear, the fourth torsion, and the fifth and sixth bending.

neutral_axis Y Z

Section y- and z-coordinates of the neutral axis with respect to the beam axis (floats). Default is 0.0 for all values.

mass M

The mass of the beam cross section per length unit (float). Default is 0.

mass_center Y Z

Section y- and z-coordinates of mass center with respect to the beam axis (floats). Default is 0.0 for all values.

mass_inertia_moments IYY IZZ IYZ

Mass inertia moments Iyy, Izz, and Iyz (floats).

beam_section_submodel

Describes the beam section by a dedicated, separate B2000++ FE submodel. The B2000++ processor will then extract from the submodel database the Timoshenko beam constitutive matrix and the other required constants.

beam_section_submodel Parameters

Parameter

Description

name

Name of the B2000++ MDL file containing the cross-section model, or name of the database containing the FE cross-section model mesh and the results. If NAME ends with .mdl, an MDL file is specified, and the B2000++ cross-section solver will be automatically executed with that file, and the cross-sectional data will be extracted from the corresponding database with the same name, but with the .b2m post-fix.

case IDENT

Load case identifier IDENT for which to extract the cross-sectional data from the database (positive int). Default is 1.

Examples

Specify a bar section property with identifier 123. The bar has the radius of 2.3.

property 123
   shape bar
   D1 12.3
end

Example with two properties 1 and 2 specifying cross-section submodels for a frame-stringer fuselage. The corresponding database frame.b2m and the MDL file stringer.mdl must exist. In the case of the latter, the B2000++ cross-section solver will be executed at the beginning of the analysis.

property 1 type beam_section_submodel
   name frame
   case 1
end
property 2 type beam_section_submodel
   name stringer.mdl
   case 1
end
Nastran to B2000++ Section Type Conversion Table. C, I have no correspondence, because y- and z-axes are swapped.

Type

DIM1

DIM2

DIM3

DIM4

DIM5

DIM6

BAR

D1 (w)

D2 (h)

BOX

D1 (w)

D2 (h)

D3 (tflanges)

D4 (twebs)

C (CHAN)

D1 (w)

D2 (h)

D3 (tweb)

D4 (tflanges)

I

D1 (h)

D1 (wlower)

D3 (wuppper)

D4 (tweb)

D5 (tlower)

D6 (tupper)

L

D1 (w)

D2 (h)

D3 (tflange)

D4 (tweb)

ROD

D1 (radius)

Circular TUBE

D1 (radius1)

D2 (radius2)

stage

The stage command specifies the analysis stage identified by IDENT (positive int). An analysis stage contains ingredients such as initial conditions (if the stage is the first stage during non-stationary analysis), boundary conditions, and solution strategy parameters. The analysis type is fixed for all stages, i.e it is not possible to select the analysis type on a per-stage basis.

The stage is activated by referencing it in the case command.

MDL Specification

stage IDENT
   parameters
end

Parameters

The parameters listed below pertain to most types of analyses and concern the specification of initial conditions, boundary conditions, and constraints. Solver-specific attributes are explained in Solvers. The parameters of stage are a subset of the case parameters without stages.

atemperatures IDENT [sfactor S | sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Specifies the ambient temperatures set IDENT to be included for certain types of analysis, like heat analysis.

During linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor S by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

During nonlinear direct analysis and in incremental analysis, the set is scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the set is multiplied.

component NAME type "ARGUMENT" [sfactor S | sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Specifies a component to be used in the current analysis stage. Components are extensions to B2000++. They implement specific natural boundary conditions, essential boundary conditions, initial conditions, or sets of constraints.

The NAME and TYPE parameters are used to identify the component (the component is registered under this name). The ARGUMENT parameter is given to the component at the start of the analysis (stage).

In linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor by which the values returned by the component are multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

In nonlinear direct analysis and in incremental analysis, the values returned by the component are scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor s by which the values returned by the component are multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the values returned by the component are multiplied.

dof_init IDENT | dofdot_init IDENT

Specifies the initial conditions set IDENT or the time-derivative of the initial conditions set for the current analysis stage. The stage must be the first stage.

ebc IDENT [sfactor S  sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Adds the essential boundary conditions set IDENT to the current analysis stage. Note that essential boundary conditions are not cumulative, i.e. if several essential boundary condition sets are specified, all values of common degrees-of-freedom must be equal.

In linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

In nonlinear direct analysis and in incremental analysis, the set is scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the set is multiplied.

field_transfer IDENT

Adds the field transfer set IDENT to the current analysis stage. Note that a field transfer set with an IDENT of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases and stages.

Alternatively, several or all field transfer sets may be specified:

field_transfer 123
field_transfer all

It is required to specify a constraint method other than the default reduction method for which the accuracy of the calculated solution cannot be always ensured when field_transfer conditions are active. See Linear and Nonlinear Constraint Control.

join IDENT

Adds the join set IDENT` (int) to the current analysis stage. Note that an IDENT of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases and stages.

linc IDENT

Adds the linear constraints set IDENT (int) to the current analysis stage. Note that an IDENT of 0 is automatically added to all analysis cases and stages.

nbc IDENT [sfactor S | sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Adds the natural boundary conditions set IDENT to the current analysis stage. Natural boundary conditions are cumulative, i.e. if several natural boundary condition sets are specified the resulting natural boundary condition for IDENT is the sum of all natural boundary condition sets multiplied by their respective scaling.

During linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

During nonlinear direct analysis and incremental analysis, the set is scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the set is multiplied.

temperatures IDENT [sfactor S|sfunction "EXPRESSION"]

Specifies the temperatures set IDENT to be included for certain types of analysis, like thermal stress analysis.

During linear analysis, the optional parameter sfactor specifies a scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0.

During nonlinear direct analysis and in incremental analysis, the set is scaled by the load factor (static analysis) or by the time (dynamic analysis). The optional parameter sfactor specifies an additional scale factor by which the set is multiplied, the default value being 1.0. Alternatively, the optional parameter sfunction specifies a function which is being evaluated at each load or time increment and by which the set is multiplied.

title 'TEXT"'

Optional title describing the analysis stage.

title

The optional command title specifies a problem title, the title text being enclosed in single or double quotes. For practical purposes the length of the title string should be limited to 64 characters or less, although titles up to 1024 characters in size can be specified.

title "..."

Specifies the problem title.

temperatures

temperatures specifies node temperature values, such as temperatures inducing thermal loads in stress analysis. To specify ambient temperature values at nodes for defining convective conditions in heat analysis, please refer to the atemperatures command.

A temperatures set is identified by I, a non-negative integer which must be unique for the temperatures conditions of the current model. IDENT is the number which is referenced by the temperatures parameters of the case command. Sets with an identifier of 0 will be active for all analysis cases.

MDL Command

temperatures IDENT
  parameters
  node specifications...
end

Parameters

value V1 [V2, ...]

Specifies the temperature values V assigned to subsequently specified nodes. Depending on the element type, more than one temperature value is required:

  • For the MITC shell element, 2 values per node are required. The first value designates the temperature at the bottom surface while the second value designates the temperature at the top surface. Linear interpolation of the temperature between the bottom and top surfaces is performed.

  • For rod/cable, beam, 2D, and 3D stress elements, a single value per node is required. If a second value is specified, it will be ignored.

Node Specification

allnodes

Assign the ambient temperature values to all defined nodes of the current branch.

branch BR*

For models that consist of several branches. Specifies the external branch number br. To be used in conjunction with the allnodes and nodes directives.

epatch IDENT p1-p8 | e1-e12| f1-f6 | b

Selects nodes from an epatch. Individual patch vertex nodes are specified with the strings p1 to p8. Patch edge nodes are specified with the strings e1 to e12. Patch face nodes are specified with the strings f1 to f6. Patch body nodes of the whole patch body are specified with the string b.

node N | nodes [N1 N2 ...]

Specifies a node or a list of nodes (of the current branch) to which the ambient temperature value will be assigned.

nodeset NAME

Specifies the name of the node set to which the temperature values will be assigned.

Import Temperatures from External Databases

Temperature sets defined in external databases can be imported specified by means of the dataset directive.

import dataset NAME from DBNAME

Reads nodal temperatures from the datasets matching NAME stored in the database DBNAME, and sets them for the nodes, overwriting any previously defined data.

The import dataset directive allows to use results from a thermal analysis, stored in another database, for a subsequent stress analysis. The dataset name pattern is TEMP.*.cycle.0.case where * means that all branches will be selected, cycle is the load increment (0 for a linear heat analysis), and case is the load case identifier.

Additional Information

temperatures generates the dataset(s) TEMP.branch.0.0.id, where branch designates the branch number and id the set identifier.

transformations

transformations specifies local DOF coordinate systems (rotations) with respect to the (branch) global coordinate reference system. transformations only specifies the transformation, it does not transform any coordinates or DOF’s, the effective transformations being executed for the respective coordinates or DOF’s by the relevant b2000++ processor. The dofref parameter of the nodes command specifies the DOF reference system transformation identifier to be applied to specific nodes.

transformations can be specified more than once.

transformations
    parameters
end

Parameters

Transformation specification:

IDENT TYPE P1X P1Y P1Z P2X P2Y P2Z [P3X P3Y P3Z]

Specifies a transformation by its identifier IDENT (positive int), the type of transformation TYPE, and the points P1, P2, and P3 defining the transformation.

If the transformation type is set to CARTESIAN (change of orthogonal base), p1, p2, and p3 are required and a change of orthogonal base will be applied.

If the transformation type is set to CYLINDRICAL a cylindrical transformation will be applied, P1 defining the cylinder z-axis, P2 the cylinder radial direction, and P3 the the cylinder angular direction.

If the transformation type is set to SPHERICAL a spherical transformation will be applied, with P1, P2, P3 being required.

If the transformation type is set to BASE, P1 and P2 are required, P1 defining the base vector e1* and P2 the base vector e2d*. The base vector e3 is calculated with P1 x P2. The base vectors need not be normalized to 1.

Examples

Specify a cylindrical coordinate system with identifier 123, with the cylinder axis identical to the global z-axis, i.e. by P1=(0,0,0) and P2=(0,0,1) , such that P2-P1=(0,0,1).

transformations
  123 cylindrical 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
end

Additional Information

The Cartesian coordinate system transformation is defined as follows: The origin is equal to the point \(P_1\). The local z-axis is defined by \(z = P_2 - P_1\), the local y-axis by \(y=(P_2 - P_1) \times P_3\), and the local x-axis by \(x=y \times (P_2 - P_1)\).

_images/transform-cartesian.svg

Cartesian transform

The cylindrical coordinate system transformation is defined as follows: The origin is equal to the point \(P_1\). The cylinder z-axis is defined by \(z = P_2 - P_1\). The tangential (\(\phi\)) direction of a point \(P\) is then defined by \(t = (P - P_1) \times z\) and the cylinder’s radius direction \(r = z \times P_3\). Point \(P_3\), together with \(P_1\) and \(P_2\), spans a plane in which \(\phi=0\), rotating in the positive direction around the local z-axis \(z = P_2 - P_1\). Note: \(_3\) is ignored,i.e. the local \((r,\phi,z)\) system is uniquely defined by the node coordinate \(P\) and points \(P_1\) and \(P_2\).

_images/transform-cylindrical.svg

Cylindrical transform

The spherical coordinate system transformation is defined as follows: The origin is equal to the point \(P_1\). The sphere z-axis is defined by \(z = P_2 - P_1\). The tangential (\(\phi\)) direction of a node \(P\) is then defined by \(t = (P - P_1) \times z\) and the sphere’s \(\theta\) direction \(r = z \times P_3\). The declination \(\theta\) rotates in a positive direction starting from z. Note: p3 is ignored for transformation, i.e. the local \((\phi,\theta\),z) system is uniquely defined by points \(P_1\) and \(P_2\).

_images/transform-spherical.svg

Spherical transform

Additional Information: Node transformations

Given the transformation definitions and the coordinates, the B2000++ input processor computes the effective DOF transformation matrices for all nodes involved. The transformation matrices are stored in datasets NLCS and referred to by the second column of the datasets NODA. The transformation is defined as \(u_{nl} = T \cdot u_{bg}\), where \(u_{nl}\) is a vector referring to the node-local system and \(u_{bg}\) to the branch global system. The transformation \(T\) contains the 3 normalized base vectors \(e_i\) row-wise. \(e_i\) defines \(i^{th}\) base vector of the node-local system with respect to the branch-global system:

\[\begin{split}T = \begin{bmatrix} e_{11} & e_{12} & e_{13} \\ e_{21} & e_{22} & e_{23} \\ e_{31} & e_{32} & e_{33} \end{bmatrix}\end{split}\]